Publication Ethics

The publication of a manuscript in a peer-reviewed work is expected to follow standards of ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing: authors, editors, and reviewers.
We encourage you to direct questions and concerns to

All manuscripts, archival materials, and supporting files, whether submitted to a peer-reviewed publication (book series, journal, or major reference work) or a primary source online collection, are expected to conform to the standards of ethical behavior promulgated by COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics For the benefit of our authors, editors,reviewers, readership, and staff, we have listed below the most pressing ethical concerns facing the academic publishing community.

Types of Research Misconduct and Violations of Publication Ethics

The suppression of any text, argumentation, supporting materials (audio or visual), data, facts, reporting, citations, or any other materials for reasons of potential personal, professional, institutional, or governmental reprisals and not for reasons of merit or intellectual rigor. Self-censorship is widely recognized by the academic community as a form of censorship.

Conflicts of Interest
Incompatibility of aims, objectives, concerns, priorities, and advantages between parties often due to affiliation or official capacity, particularly when one or more parties stands to benefit materially or reputationally from such incompatibility. Furthermore, the individual with a conflict of interest is unable equitably to manage the actual or potential adverse effects of the conflict of interest on the other parties. Authors, editors, and reviewers have an ethical obligation to disclose conflicts of interest.

Discriminatory Preactices and Languages
Differential treatment of and conduct toward an individual or group of people based on their race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, marital and parental status, disability, sexual orientation, or genetic information.

Failure to Acknowledge resources
Includes all forms of plagiarism. Also includes intentionally or unintentionally omitting to cite irreproducible sources.

Multiple Manuscript Submission
Submitting the same manuscript to more than one publisher,or even to more than one publication at the same publisher, without full disclosure.

Segmented Publication
Also known as “salami publication” or “salami slicing”, the practice of dividing the data from one research project among multiple publications, often with redundancies in hypotheses, methodologies, and conclusions, as a strategy to inflate the number of one’s publications.

Reporting Cases of Research Misconduct or Violations of Publication Ethics
In cases of suspected or verified research misconduct or violations of publication ethics, the first course of action should always be to notify the responsible Acquisitions Editor or Publishing Director at Bretschneider. If this information is not readily available, you may also email; this mailbox is regularly monitored, and the responsible Bretschneider editor or director will follow up with you in a timely manner. You may always feel free to contact the lead non-Bretschneider editor of the publication in question as well; however, until instructed differently, Bretschneider staff will respect and safeguard the confidentiality of your communications.